Gum Diseases and Unpleasant Mouth Odor (Halitosis)

Gum diseases may be categorized into two broad groups, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis is definitely an inflammation of the gingivae (gums) in all of the age ranges but manifests more often in kids and young adults.

Periodontitis is definitely an inflammation with subsequent destruction of the other tooth-supporting structures, namely the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum and subsequent loss of teeth. This condition mainly manifests in early mid-life with severity increasing in the elderly.

Gingivitis can or may progress to periodontitis state within an individual.

Gum diseases have been located to be the most widespread chronic diseases around the world with a prevalence which can be between 90 and 100 % in grown-ups over 35 yrs . old in developing countries. It’s got already been confirmed to be the explanation for referred to as in individuals 40 years and above.

Terrible breath is among the major consequences of gum diseases.

A number of the terms that are greatly related to smelly breath and gum diseases are listed below:

Dental Plaque- The essential requirement for the prevention and management of a disease is definitely an idea of its causes. The primary source of gum diseases is bacteria, which form a complicated for the tooth surface generally known as plaque. These bacteria’s would be the source of bad breath.

Dental plaque is bacterial accumulations for the teeth and other solid oral structures. If it’s of sufficient thickness, it seems as being a whitish, yellowish layer mainly down the gum margins for the tooth surface. Its presence can even be discerned by the conventional dye or fluorescent dye (demonstrated by illumination with ultraviolet light), disclosing solution or by scraping your tooth surface along the gum margins.

When plaque is examined underneath the microscope, it reveals a multitude of several types of bacteria. Some desquamated oral epithelial cells and white blood cells can be present. The micro-organisms detected vary according to the site where these are present.
You can find gram positive and gram negative organisms, filamentous and flagellated organisms, spirochetes and occasionally small amounts of even yeasts, mycoplasma and protozoa.

Clean tooth surfaces after brushing are usually included in a thin layer of glycoproteins from saliva called pellicle. Pellicle permits the selective adherence of bacteria towards the tooth surface.

Through the initial hours, the bacteria proliferate to create colonies. Furthermore, other organisms will also populate the pellicle from adjacent areas produce a complex accumulation of mixed colonies. The material present involving the bacteria is known as intermicrobial matrix forming about 25 % in the plaque volume. This matrix is primarily extra cellular carbohydrate polymers manufactured by the bacteria from dietary sugars; salivary and gingival fluid components; and dying and dead bacteria.

Small quantities of plaque are works with gingival or periodontal health. Many people can resist larger quantities of plaque for very long periods without developing destructive periodontitis (inflammation and destruction in the supporting tissues) even though they will exhibit gingivitis (inflammation from the gums or gingiva).

Diet And Plaque Formation- Diet may play a crucial part in plaque formation by modifying the total amount and composition of plaque. More the plaque formation would be, there will be more halitosis bad breath.

Fermentable sugars increase plaque formation since they provide additional energy supply for bacterial metabolism and offer the unprocessed trash (substrate) to the output of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Secondary Factors

Although plaque may be the primary cause of gum diseases, several others viewed as secondary factors, local and systemic, predispose towards plaque accumulation or affect the response of gum tissue to plaque. The neighborhood factors are:

1) Cavities in the teeth;

2) Faulty fillings;

3) Food impaction;

4) Poorly designed partial dentures (dentures);

5) Orthodontic appliances;

6) Misaligned teeth;

7) mouth-breathing

8) Grooves on teeth or roots near gum margins;

9) Reduced salivary flow; and,

10) Smoking cigarettes.

The systemic factors which potentially modify the gum tissues are:

1) Systemic diseases, e.g. diabetes mellitus, Down’s syndrome, AIDS, blood disorders among others;

2) Hormonal changes – during puberty, pregnancy, contraceptives intake and menopause;

3) Drug reactions, e.g. immunosuppressive drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiepileptic drugs; and,

4) Dietary and nutritional factors, e.g. protein deficiency and vitamin C and B deficiency.

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About the Author: Annette Nardecchia

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