Gum Diseases and Smelly Breath (Halitosis)

Gum diseases might be categorized into two broad groups, namely gingivitis and periodontitis.

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gingivae (gums) in every ages but manifests more frequently in youngsters and teenagers.

Periodontitis is surely an inflammation with subsequent destruction with the other tooth-supporting structures, namely the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum and subsequent lack of teeth. This condition mainly manifests at the begining of middle age with severity increasing within the elderly.

Gingivitis can or may progress to periodontitis state in an individual.

Gum diseases have been found to become just about the most widespread chronic diseases around the world using a prevalence which can be between 90 and 100 percent in older adults over 35 years of age in developing countries. They have already been been shown to be the explanation for loss of teeth in individuals 40 years and above.

Halitosis bad breath is one of the major consequences of gum diseases.

A number of the terms which are greatly associated with bad breath and gum diseases are highlighted below:

Dental Plaque- The fundamental dependence on the prevention and treatment of a condition is an comprehension of its causes. The key reason behind gum diseases is bacteria, which form a complex about the tooth surface called plaque. These bacteria’s are the root cause of halitosis bad breath.

Dental plaque is bacterial accumulations on the teeth or any other solid oral structures. If it’s of sufficient thickness, it seems like as a whitish, yellowish layer mainly down the gum margins about the tooth surface. Its presence can also be discerned with a conventional dye or fluorescent dye (demonstrated by illumination with ultraviolet light), disclosing solution or by scraping your tooth surface across the gum margins.

When plaque is examined within the microscope, it reveals a multitude of a variety of bacteria. Some desquamated oral epithelial cells and white blood cells may also be present. The micro-organisms detected vary based on the site where these are present.
You’ll find gram positive and gram negative organisms, filamentous and flagellated organisms, spirochetes and sometimes even small amounts of even yeasts, mycoplasma and protozoa.

Clean tooth surfaces after brushing tend to be paid by a thin layer of glycoproteins from saliva called pellicle. Pellicle allows for the selective adherence of bacteria for the tooth surface.

In the initial hours, the bacteria proliferate to create colonies. Moreover, other organisms will even populate the pellicle from adjacent areas to create a complex accumulation of mixed colonies. The information present relating to the bacteria is named intermicrobial matrix forming about 25 per cent from the plaque volume. This matrix is especially extra cellular carbohydrate polymers manufactured by the bacteria from dietary sugars; salivary and gingival fluid components; and dying and dead bacteria.

Small quantities of plaque are compatible with gingival or periodontal health. Some individuals can resist larger quantities of plaque for long periods without developing destructive periodontitis (inflammation and destruction from the supporting tissues) whilst they will exhibit gingivitis (inflammation in the gums or gingiva).

Diet And Plaque Formation- Diet may play a crucial part in plaque formation by modifying the quantity and composition of plaque. More the plaque formation would be, you will see more terrible breath.

Fermentable sugars increase plaque formation because they provide additional energy supply for bacterial metabolism and provide the recycleables (substrate) for the production of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Secondary Factors

Although plaque is the primary cause of gum diseases, a number of others regarded as secondary factors, local and systemic, predispose towards plaque accumulation or alter the response of gum tissue to plaque. The area factors are:

1) Cavities in the teeth;

2) Faulty fillings;

3) Food impaction;

4) Poorly designed partial dentures (false teeth);

5) Orthodontic appliances;

6) Misaligned teeth;

7) mouth-breathing

8) Grooves on teeth or roots near gum margins;

9) Reduced salivary flow; and,

10) Smoking tobacco.

The systemic factors which potentially get a new gum tissues are:

1) Systemic diseases, e.g. diabetes, Down’s syndrome, AIDS, blood disorders among others;

2) Hormonal changes – during puberty, pregnancy, contraceptives intake and menopause;

3) Drug reactions, e.g. immunosuppressive drugs, antihypertensive drugs and antiepileptic drugs; and,

4) Dietary and nutritional factors, e.g. protein deficiency and ascorbic acid and B deficiency.

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About the Author: Annette Nardecchia

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